Gas to Liquids Plant

Reducing greenhouse gas not the product!

The technology on offer is a new generation of Fischer Tropsch (FT) technology. The technology can be applied in Gas to Liquid (GTL), Coal to Liquid (CTL) as well as a combined fed process (CFTL) and biomass derived liquid fuels. The implementation of the technology offers reduced CO2 emission, reduced capital and operating costs as well as simplicity of operation. The ease of scalability allows the technology to be applied to resources that were previously thought to be stranded and uneconomical, as well as for associated and main resource body resources. This scalability is achieved through the innovative modular design for implementation of the technology.

 

How has this been achieved?

The key novelty of this process lies in the one pass design of the system. The elimination of the recycle improves not only the operability of the process, but also does away with the requirement for certain items of equipment that are key to the operation of a recycle based system. The removal of these items, reduces the operating costs and as a result has a significant positive impact on the profitability of the process. In particular, the new design permits the elimination of upstream air separation for gasification, reformers for the recycle of methane from the tailgas, as well as the eradication of the requirement for complex and expensive gas separation for the recycle process.

Gas to Liquids

So what is the Process?

The carbon feedstock (Natural Gas, Coal, Municipal Waste or Biomass) is converted to Syngas in a Reformer or Gasifier respectively. With this technology, these units can be either air or oxygen or enriched air fed. The Syngas is cleaned by means of a demonstrated Chinese developed fixed bed technology to reduce the total sulphur levels to below 20 ppb and remove other contaminants that could be damaging to the Fischer Tropsch Catalysts.

What is Fischer Tropsch Synthesis?

The Fischer Tropsch (FT) Process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) to hydrocarbons and steam. The carbon monoxide and hydrogen mixture (referred to as synthesis gas) can be obtained from coal, natural gas or biomass. Synthesis gas is versatile in that it can be used to produce not only hydrocarbons (mainly liquid fuels) but electricity and other chemicals (for example, methanol and ammonia) as well. The Fischer  Tropsch reaction takes place in the presence of a catalyst, usually iron or cobalt. The temperature, pressure and catalyst determine the range of product. Fischer Tropsch can be operated in two modes: high temperature (300 350°C) process with ironbased catalysts or lowtemperature (200 240°C) process with either iron or cobalt catalysts. The reaction is highly exothermic (the reaction releases energy).

Fischer–Tropsch technology produces a mixture of synthetic hydrocarbons, commonly referred to as synthetic crude oil or syncrude, a mixture of straight chain hydrocarbons with a distribution of different amounts of carbon atoms in each molecule. These vary from methane (CH4) to long (C18+) waxes. The reaction produces water and low temperature heat as byproducts. Products from the high temperature FT have fewer carbon atoms in the molecules, contain more oxygenates and have more branching in the carbon skeleton of the produced molecules than the low temperature systems. This leads to improved gasoline quality. The low temperature routes produce longer carbon chain molecules and less oxygenates. The number of carbon atoms in the spectrum is higher than for the high temperature FT. This leads to a good quality diesel and the products which are heavier than diesel can be readily converted to diesel by a well proven process called hydrocracking.

Feed requirements

The process has no specific feed quality or requirements beyond those required for the selected gasifier or reformer technology. However, resources with high heavy metal, sulphur or nitrogenous compounds will have reduced economic potential for this process. Similarly, coal or municipal waste with high water content will have reduced operational efficiencies

 Products of the Process

The process produces a variety of products including alkanes, alkenes and a small range of oxygenate hydrocarbons. The precise combination of these products can be tuned through the selection of the process catalyst and the operational conditions to provide a product stream that is suitable for your market. This product is similar to crude oil and a comparison of the products with crude oil can be seen below. The diesel component of this spectrum is ideal for motor usage but the gasoline requires upgrading to improve the octane number.

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